Taken from the Taekwon-Do encyclopedia:
THE THEORY OF POWER
WHITE Signifies innocence, as that of a beginning student who has no previous knowledge of Taekwon-Do.
YELLOW Signifies the Earth from which a plant sprouts and takes root as the Taekwon-Do foundation is being laid.
GREEN Signifies the plant’s growth as the Taekwon-Do skill begins to develop.
BLUE Signifies the Heaven, towards which the plant matures into a towering tree as training in Taekwon-Do progresses.
RED Signifies danger, cautioning the student to exercise control and warning the opponent to stay away.
BLACK Opposite of white, therefore, signifying the maturity and proficiency in Taekwon-Do. It also indicates the wearer’s imperviousness to darkness and fear.
Chon-Ji means literally ” the Heaven the Earth”. It is, in the Orient, interpreted as the creation of the world or the beginning of human history, therefore, it is the initial pattern played by the beginner. This pattern consists of two similar parts; one to represent the Heaven and the other the Earth. (19 movements)
Dan-Gun is named after the holy Dan-Gun, the legendary founder of Korea in the year of 2,333 B.C. (21 movements)
Do-San is a pseudonym of the patriot Ahn Chang-ho. The 24 movements represent his entire life, which he devoted to furthering education in Korea and the Korean independence movement. (24 movements)
Won- Hyo is named after the noted monk Won-hyo who introduced Buddhism to the Silla Dynasty in the year 686 AD. (28 movements)
Yul-Gok is a pseudonym of a great philosopher and scholar Yi I nicknamed the “Confucius of Korea”. The 38 movements of this pattern refer to his birthplace on 38-degree latitude and the diagram of the pattern represents scholar. (38 movements)
Joong-Gun is named after the patriot Ahn Joong-Gun who assassinated Hirobumi Itō, the first Japanese governor-general of Korea, known as the man who played the leading part in the Korea-Japan merger. There are 32 movements in this pattern to represent Mr Ahn’s age when he was executed at Lui-Shung Prison in 1910. (32 movements)
Toi-Gye is the pen name of the noted scholar Yi Hwang (16 century AD), an authority on neo-Confucianism. The 37 movements of the pattern refer to his birthplace on 37-degree latitude, the diagram represents “scholar”. (37 movements)
Hwa-Rang is named after the Hwa-Rang youth group, which originated in the Silla Dynasty in the early 7th century. The 29 movements refer to the 29th Infantry Division, where Taekwon-Do developed into maturity. (29 movements)
Choong-Moo was the name given to the great Admiral Yi Sun-sin of the Yi Dynasty. He was reputed to have invented the first armored battleship (kobukson) in 1592, which is said to be the precursor the present day submarine. The reason this pattern ends with a left hand attack is to symbolize his regrettable death having no chance to show his unrestrained potentiality checked by the forced reservation of his loyalty to the King. (30 movements)
Kwang-Gae is named after the famous Kwang-Gae-Toh-Wang, the 19th King of the Koguryo Dynasty, who regained all the lost territories including the greater part of Manchuria. The diagram represents the expansion and recovery of lost territory. The 39 movements refer to the first two figures of 391 A. D., the year he came to the throne. (39 movements)
Po-Eun is the pseudonym of a loyal subject Chong Mong-Chu (1400) who was a famous poet and whose poem “I would not serve a second master though I might be crucified a hundred times” is known to every Korean. He was also a pioneer in the field of physics. The diagram represents his unerring loyalty to the king and country towards the end of the Koryo Dynasty. (36 movements)
Ge-Baek is named after Ge-Baek, a great general in the Baek Je Dynasty (660 AD). The diagram represents his severe and strict military discipline. (44 movements)
The Theory of Power
The following pages are taken from the Taekwon-do encyclopedia. Written by the late General Choi Hong Hi. (The Founder of Taekwon-do.)
The beginning student may ask; “Where does one obtain the power to create the devastating results attributed to Taekwon-Do?” This power is attributed to the utilization of a personas full potential through the mathematical application of Taekwon-Do techniques. The average person uses only 10 to 20 percent of their potential. Anyone, regardless of size, age, or sex who can condition themselves to use 100 percent of their potential can also perform the same destructive techniques.
Though training will certainly result in a superb level of physical fitness, it will not necessarily result in the acquisition of extraordinary stamina or superhuman strength. More important, Taekwon-Do training will result in obtaining a high level of reaction force, concentration, equilibrium, breath control and speed; these are the factors that will result in a high degree of physical power.
“Powerful enough to uproot mountains”
Reaction Force – Bandong Ryok
According to Newton’s Law, every force has as equal and opposite force. When an automobile crashes into a wall with the force of 2,000 pounds, the wall will return a force of 2,000 pounds; or forcing the end of a seesaw down with a ton of weight will provide an upward force of the same weight; if your opponent is rushing towards you at a high speed, by the slightest blow at his head, the force with which you strike their head would be that of their own onslaught plus that of your blow.
The two forces combined; his, which is large, and yours, which is small are quite impressive. Another reaction force is your own. A punch with the right fist is aided by pulling back the left fist to the hip.
Concentration – Jip Joong
By applying the impact force onto the smallest target area, it will concentrate the force and therefore, increase its effect. For example, the force of water coming out of a water hose is greater if the orifice is smaller. Conversely, the weight of a man spread out on snow shoes makes hardly any impression on the snow. The blows in Taekwon-Do are often concentrated onto the edge of the open palm or to the crook of the fingers.
It is very important that you should not unleash all your strength at the beginning but gradually, and particularly at the point of contact with your opponent’s body, the force must be so concentrated as to give a knock-out blow. That is to say, the shorter the time for the concentration, the greater will be the power of the blow. The utmost concentration is required in order to mobilize every muscle of the body onto the smallest target area simultaneously.
In conclusion, concentration is done in two ways: one is to concentrate every muscle of the body, particularly the bigger muscles around the hip and abdomen (which theoretically are slower than the smaller muscles of other parts of the body) towards the appropriate tool to be used at the proper time; the second way is to concentrate such mobilized muscles onto the opponent’s vital spot. This is the reason why the hip and abdomen are jerked slightly before the hands and feet in any action, whether it be attack or defence.
Remember, jerking can be executed in two ways: laterally and vertically.
Equilibrium – Kyun Hyung
Balance is of utmost importance in any type of athletics. In Taekwon-Do, it deserves special consideration. By keeping the body always in equilibrium, that is, well balanced, a blow is more effective and deadly. Conversely, the unbalanced one is easily toppled. The stance should always be stable yet flexible, for both offensive and defensive movements.
Equilibrium is classified into both dynamic and static stability. They are so closely inter-related that the maximum force can only be produced when the static stability is maintained through dynamic stability.
To maintain good equilibrium, the centre of gravity of the stance must fall on a straight line midway between both legs when the body weight is distributed equally on both legs, or in the centre of the foot if it is necessary to concentrate the bulk of body weight on one foot. The centre of gravity can be adjusted according to body weight. Flexibility and knee spring are also important in maintaining balance for both a quick attack and instant recovery. One additional point; the heel of the rear foot should never be off the ground at the point of impact. This is not only necessary for good balance but also to produce maximum power at the point of impact.
Breath Control – Hohup Jojul
Controlled breathing not only affects one’s stamina and speed but can also condition a body to receive a blow and augment the power of a blow directed against an opponent. Through practice, breath stopped in the state of exhaling at the critical moment when a blow is landed against a pressure point on the body can prevent a loss of consciousness and stifle pain. A sharp exhaling of breath at the moment of impact and stopping the breath during the execution of a movement tense the abdomen to concentrate maximum effort on the delivery of the motion, while a slow inhaling helps the preparation of the next movement. An important rule to remember; Never inhale while focusing a block or blow against an opponent. Not only will this impede movement but it will also result in a loss of power.
Students should also practice disguised breathing to conceal any outward signs of fatigue. An experienced fighter will certainly press an attack when he realizes his opponent is on the point of exhaustion.
One breath is required for one movement with the exception of a continuous motion.
Mass – Zilyang
Mathematically, the maximum kinetic energy or force is obtained from maximum body weight and speed and it is all important that the body weight be increased during the execution of a blow. No doubt the maximum body weight is applied with the motion of turning the hip. The large abdominal muscles are twisted to provide additional body momentum. Thus the hip rotates in the same direction as that of the attacking or blocking tool. Another way of increasing body weight is the utilization of a springing action of the knee joint. This is achieved by slightly raising the hip at the beginning of the motion and lowering the hip at the moment of impact to drop the body weight into the motion.
In summarizing, it is necessary to point out that the principles of force outlined here hold just as true today in our modern scientific and nuclear age as they did centuries ago.
I am sure that when you go through this art, both in theory and in practice, you will find that the scientific basis of the motions and the real power which comes out a small human body cannot fail to impress you.
Speed – Sokdo
Speed is the most essential factor of force or power. Scientifically, force equals mass times acceleration (F = MA) or (P = MV2), where P = Power, M = Mass and V = Velocity.
If you drop a large stone gently on a double pane of glass from a height of three inches its effect will be minimal. On the other hand, if you throw a small stone against the same glass with great speed it will smash.
If you pass your hand through a candle flame the flam will carry on burning, you can however extinguish the flame with a controlled punch or kick by stopping the technique one inch from the flame. The force of displacement of the air in front of your attacking tool is enough to extinguish the flame.
According to the theory of kinetic energy, every object increases its weight as well as speed in a downward movement. This very principle is applied to this particular art of self-defence. For this reason, at the moment of impact, the position of the hand normally becomes lower than the shoulder and the foot lower than the hip while the body is in the air.
Reaction force, breath control, equilibrium, concentration, and relaxation of the muscles cannot be ignored. However, these are the factors that contribute to the speed and all these factors, together with flexible and rhythmic movements, must be well coordinated to produce the maximum power in Taekwon-Do.
An old proverb says that even Heaven cannot make a diligent worker, poor. However, in Taekwon-Do diligence or intensive training alone does not produce quality techniques. On the contrary, instructions from a false or unqualified instructor would be worse than not being taught at all because unscientific movements not only reduce power but require a tremendous amount of time to correct.
On the other hand, under the proper guidance of a competent instructor, a student who trains earnestly with dedication will learn the true techniques of Taekwon-Do in a comparitively short period of time with less effort.
Students should keep in mind the following secrets:
- To study the theory of power thoroughly.
- To understand the purpose and method of each movement clearly.
- To bring the movement of eyes, hands, feet and breath into a single co-ordinated action.
- To choose the appropriate attacking tool for each vital spot.
- To become familiar with the correct angle and distance for attack and defence.
- Keep both arms and legs bent slightly while the movement is in motion.
- All movements must begin with a backward motion with very few exceptions. However, once the movement is in motion it should not be stopped before reaching the target.
- To create sine wave during the movement by utilizing the knee spring properly.
- To exhale briefly at the moment of each blow except a connecting motion.
Students are only as strong as the general who leads them. In a like manner, students can only excel under an excellent instructor. We cannot expect a bamboo to grow in a field of weeds, nor can we expect to find an outstanding student under an unqualified teacher.
It is of particular importance that the two aspects of Taekwon-Do, the spirit and the technique, must be taught together. Therefore, a qualified instructor must combine the qualities of a scholar and a soldier if he is top produce pupils of noble character and outstanding skills.
Such an instructor must possess the following qualities:
- Strong moral and ethical standard.
- Clear outlook and philosophy in life.
- Responsible attitude as an instructor.
- Scientific mind in matters of technique.
- Knowledge of the vital spots of human anatomy.
- unshakable integrity in matters of financial dealings.
- Dedication to spread the art of Taekwon-Do throughout the world.
- One who gains confidence form his seniors is trusted by his fellow instructors and is respected buy his juniors